3. MCCLELLAND’S NEED THEORY
Published by David McClelland in 1960s, McClelland’s Need Theory refers to 3 kinds of needs that human are motivated by: achievement, affiliation and power. Relevant to each type of needs is a behavioral style. People with achievement needs should be given challenging but reachable projects and goals as they appreciate recognition. Affiliation needs often drive those seek approval to work best when cooperating with others. Lastly, people with power needs are socially oriented and find interest in managing others and influencing them.
4. HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY
Proposed by Frederick Herzberg in 1968, Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory indicates the balance of Motivation Factors and Hygiene Factors in human needs. Motivation Factors involve responsibility, self-actualization, professional growth and recognition while Hygiene Factors include working condition, salary, personal life, relationship at work, security and status.
5. EXPECTANCY THEORY
Developed in 1964 by Victor H.Vroom, Expectancy Theory shows how Effort, Performance and Reward have affect on each other and on human needs. It indicates that to handle a task, human tend to put in a lot of effort with the hope of producing an acceptable performance which later on will lead to a valuable reward.
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