3. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
The theory, which was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in 1959 who spent five years studying job satisfaction, after he noticed such an increase in job dissatisfaction. He said that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are actually measured in various methods. It is the job’ content that holds the primary source of motivation, this opposes the popular belief that money alone is the primary motivation for people to work. To be more specific, “motivation” factors, like recognition, growth, autonomy, and enjoying the work itself are what really lead to job satisfaction, while job dissatisfaction derives from “hygiene” factors, like a person's workplace his level of salary and mostly, the job security.
4. McClelland’s Need Theory
Another need theory is McClelland’s. He proposed that people are motivated by all have three motivating drivers which does not depend on our gender or age. One of these drives will be dominant in our behavior, the dominant drive depends on our life experiences. These three motivators are:
- Achievement: a desire to perform and prove one's ability
- Affiliation: a need for love, belonging and social acceptance.
- Power: a need for control own work or the work of others.
5. Expectancy Theory
Victor Vroom assumed that people choose a specific behavior based on their expectations of the expected result. He introduced three variables
- Expectancy (E): Expectation drives Performance
- Instrumentality (I): Performance that may result in favorable Outcome
- Valence (V): This is the vital role of reward to a worker, which based on their needs, goals, and sources of motivation
Expectancy theory is the foundation that helps managers in understanding how people behave, what choices will they make when alternatives are available. Managers can understand people’s expectations towards desired performance and tie specific rewards to outcomes in order to motivate them. People will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe there are relationships between the efforts they put forth, the performance they achieve, and the outcomes/rewards they receive.
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