Tuckman Ladder And Its Effect On Project Management. (Part 1)

In 1965, the forming–storming–norming–performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman, a human resource scientist. Said model has overcome the obstacles which face the team building. Tuckman's model, which was later known as Tuckman Ladder was initially based on 4 stages, then in 1977, Tuckman, jointly with Mary Ann Jensen, added a fifth stage to the 4 stages: adjourning (Mourning), that involves completing the task and breaking up the team. This article will guide you through 5 stages of Tuckman ladder and its effect on both project management and the team’s success. 

What are the characteristics of Tuckman ladder?

The Tuckman ladder includes steps, in which every step heavily depends on the previous one and plays the role of preparation for the performing stage. Once being skipped, the performance would be negatively affected. This is not to mention that the process is repeated with every new project.

How can we adapt Tuckman ladder successfully? 

As a project manager, you want to help your team. By identifying the stage of team development that your team is at and calculating all the steps and choices to make before moving towards the performing stage. You should also regularly review the team’s process, and adjust your behavior and leadership approach appropriately.

What are the steps of Tuckman ladder?


In this stage, the members of the team get to know one another, exchange some personal information in their first team meeting. The meeting environment also plays an important role to model the initial behavior of each person, the major task functions of the meeting are also orientation. Members are guided to the tasks as well as to one another. Discussion focuses more on defining the task's scope, the methods in approaching, and other concerns. To grow from this stage to the next, members must avoid the comfort of non-threatening topics. resulted in a sense of loss sometimes held by team members.

(to be continued)

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